Metabolic Syndromes and Cardiovascular Disease: What is on the horizon?

Anwar Santoso


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterised by the simultaneous occurrence of at least three out of five
cardio-metabolic disorders.1, 2 These problems consist of visceral obesity, hypertension, high blood glucose, high
triglyceride, and low HDL cholesterol levels.2 It is unclear to what extent communities with diverse ethnic
backgrounds differ in the contributing factors. Additionally, the risk of cardio-vascular disease (CVD) mortality
may vary depending on the frequency of MetS and its components in various ethnic groups and nations.3 Inappropriately,
information on the CVD mortality risk associated with MetS is still quite limited, especially in Asian
countries. The majority of investigations were limited to determining the prevalence of MetS and its contributing
variables among Asians. Due mostly to unhealthy lifestyle such as an imbalanced diet high in carbohydrate and
sedentary habits, the prevalence of MetS has been rising along with urbanisation.4


Cardiovascular disease; Metabolic syndrome.

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