Overcoming High Cardiovascular Disease Burden in Indonesia: The Importance of Massive Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Screening, Aggressive Guideline-Directed Treatment, and Community-Based Programs

Yoga Waranugraha


Indonesia is a developing country with a large number of populations. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a serious public health concern in Indonesia because of its high burden. Moreover, the high-risk CVD patients were under treatment. Optimal CVD prevention can be the solution to this issue. In this paper, we are talking mainly about the role of massive CVD risk factor screening, precise risk stratification, aggressive guideline-directed treatment, and community-based programs in reducing the CVD burden.


Cardiovascular disease (CVD), community-based programs

Full Text:



Suwantika AA, Dhamanti I, Suharto Y, Purba FD, Abdulah R. The cost-effectiveness of social distancing measures for mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic in a highly-populated country: A case study in Indonesia. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2022;45(December 2021):102245. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2021.102245

Mboi N, Murty Surbakti I, Trihandini I, et al. On the road to universal health care in Indonesia, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet. 2018;392(10147):581-591. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30595-6

Hussain MA, Mamun A Al, Peters SAE, Woodward M, Huxley RR. The burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to major modifiable risk factors in Indonesia. J Epidemiol. 2016;26(10):515-521. doi:10.2188/jea.JE20150178

Maharani A, Sujarwoto, Praveen D, Oceandy D, Tampubolon G, Patel A. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence and estimated 10-year cardiovascular risk scores in Indonesia: The SMARThealth Extend study. PLoS One. 2019;14(4):1-13. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0215219

Pramudyo M, Yahya AF, Martanto E, et al. Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome in Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Acta Med Indones. 2022;54(3):379-388.

Chan MY, Du X, Eccleston D, et al. Acute coronary syndrome in the Asia-Pacific region. Int J Cardiol. 2016;202:861-869. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.04.073

Jensen MT, Pereira M, Araujo C, et al. Heart rate at admission is a predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes: Results from 58 European hospitals: The European Hospital Benchmarking by Outcomes in acute coronary syndrome Processes study. Eur Hear journal Acute Cardiovasc care. 2018;7(2):149-157. doi:10.1177/2048872616672077

Piepoli MF, Hoes AW, Agewall S, et al. 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(29):2315-2381. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehw106

Cobiac LJ, Magnus A, Lim S, Barendregt JJ, Carter R, Vos T. Which interventions offer best value for money in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease? PLoS One. 2012;7(7). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041842

Collins M, Mason H, O’Flaherty M, Guzman-Castillo M, Critchley J, Capewell S. An economic evaluation of salt reduction policies to reduce coronary heart disease in england: A policy modeling study. Value Heal. 2014;17(5):517-524. doi:10.1016/j.jval.2014.03.1722

Sacco RL, Roth GA, Reddy KS, et al. The Heart of 25 by 25: Achieving the Goal of Reducing Global and Regional Premature Deaths From Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke: A Modeling Study From the American Heart Association and World Heart Federation. Circulation. 2016;133(23):e674-e690. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000395

Ridker PM, Pradhan A, MacFadyen JG, Libby P, Glynn RJ. Cardiovascular benefits and diabetes risks of statin therapy in primary prevention: An analysis from the JUPITER trial. Lancet. 2012;380(9841):565-571. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61190-8

Wright JT, Williamson JD, Whelton PK, et al. A Randomized Trial of Intensive versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(22):2103-2116. doi:10.1056/nejmoa1511939

Furberg CD, Wright JT, Davis BR, et al. Major Outcomes in High-Risk Hypertensive Patients Randomized to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor or Calcium Channel Blocker vs Diuretic. JAMA J Am Med Assoc. 2002;288(23):2981-2997.

D’Agostino RB, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: The Framingham heart study. Circulation. 2008;117(6):743-753. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.699579

Giampaoli S. CUORE: A sustainable cardiovascular disease prevention strategy. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2007;14(2):161-162. doi:10.1097/HJR.0b013e328157f3e5

Assmann G, Cullen P, Schulte H. Simple scoring scheme for calculating the risk of acute coronary events based on the 10-year follow-up of the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) study. Circulation. 2002;105(3):310-315. doi:10.1161/hc0302.102575

Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C, Vinogradova Y, Robson J, May M, Brindle P. Derivation and validation of QRISK, a new cardiovascular disease risk score for the United Kingdom: Prospective open cohort study. Br Med J. 2007;335(7611):136-141. doi:10.1136/bmj.39261.471806.55

Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C, Vinogradova Y, et al. Predicting cardiovascular risk in England and Wales: Prospective derivation and validation of QRISK2. Bmj. 2008;336(7659):1475-1482. doi:10.1136/bmj.39609.449676.25

Woodward M, Brindle P, Tunstall-Pedoe H. Adding social deprivation and family history to cardiovascular risk assessment: the ASSIGN score from the Scottish Heart Health Extended Cohort (SHHEC). Heart. 2007;93(2):172-176. doi:10.1136/hrt.2006.108167

Conroy RM, Pyörälä K, Fitzgerald AP, et al. Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: The SCORE project. Eur Heart J. 2003;24(11):987-1003. doi:10.1016/S0195-668X(03)00114-3

Mach F, Baigent C, Catapano AL, et al. 2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: Lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk. Eur Heart J. 2020;41(1):111-188. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehz455

Williams B, Mancia G, Spiering W, et al. 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J. 2018;39(33):3021-3104. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehy339

Soltani S, Saraf-Bank S, Basirat R, et al. Community-based cardiovascular disease prevention programmes and cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health. 2021;200:59-70. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2021.09.006

Dzikrul Haq Karimullah M, Saifur Rohman M, Adriyanto T, Tri Tjahjono C, Widito S. Community-based Cardiac Rehabilitation Improved Adherence to Medication, Quality of Life and Rehospitalization Among Stable Coronary Artery Patients: A Cohort Study. Hear Sci J. 2020;1(2):24-31. doi:10.21776/ub.hsj.2020.001.02.5

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.hsj.2022.003.04.1


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Yoga Waranugraha

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.